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Embryos that regulate the micro-infection containing embryos.

Embryos that regulate the micro-infection containing embryos.
Image:: Mark Schiffelbine (A.P.)

The expert commission says that editing the human genome is still very risky That the World Health Organization should play a leading role when it comes to regulating this evolving biotechnology.

New: guidelines:, announced It took two years on Monday Expert Advisory Committee together, և they include a position paper on human gene editing և the proposed global governance framework.

The World Health Organization convened the committee in 2019, answering a infamous science scandal involving He Jiankui, a biophysicist formerly at the Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China. As the world learned in November 2018, the rogue scientist used a CRISPR gene editing tool to modify human embryos, giving birth to twin girls with a pronounced immunity to HIV. If this was not shocking enough, he was allegedly falsifying ethical documentsd study participants. Chinese officials have found him guilty of making an illegal attempt, and he is currently committing the crime. to serve threeyear imprisonment.

The scandal led to public outcry, with some experts advocating a in the moratorium on the editing of the inherited human genome at the expense of the newborn state of technology և unknown risks. At the same time, He is trying և The resulting conversation served as a reminder ի: potential benefits such as preventing deadly blood և brain disorders և treating some cancers. He demonstrated through experience the potential for new possibilities, such as immunity. dangerous pathogens or, more: transhumanistically, high IQs և athletic ability.

According to the report, gene editing comes in several forms, including somatic sperm editing, the latter of which affects all cells belonging to the embryo, including spermatozoa and ova. Sperm cell edits are controversial because they are inherited, which means that the new properties will be passed on to the next generation. Somatic changes that can affect local cells in the body, such as bone marrow, are not inherited. չեն They are not so contradictory.

Regardless, the WHO Committee made reservations about both types of gene editing. As Sumya Swaminathan, a member of the commission and chief scientist, wrote of the new proposals, “there are potential areas of ongoing uncertainty about potential benefits and risks, gaps in scientific understanding in key areas. [unintended] Impacts և Long-term risks. “

In its guidelines, the committee said it was too early to allow seedling experiments like the one it performed. This proposal is in line with the WHO current position: on the issue and discoveries from a 2020 consists of U.Ս. National Academy of Medicine, M.Ս. National Academy of Sciences և Royal Society of Great Britain. New: The report goes on to describe why global governance of genome editing is required և Why should governments tighten: Legislative restrictions on human gene editing?

At the same time, the commission did not shy away from noticing Possible benefits of genome editing for the treatment of somatic gene therapies: HIV, sickle cell disease, transvestite amyloidosis (slow-growing disease of the nervous system).

“As global research deepens into the human genome, we need to minimize the risks and levers that science can bring about better health for all, everywhere,” Swaminathan said. announcement:,

The Committee recommends that the WHO take the lead in regulating genome editing, such as promoting international cooperation, promoting ethical testing of genetics, and advising governments on how to coordinate international standards. The Committee emphasized the need to ensure equal access to the interventions arising from this study. Thorny issues related to intellectual property rights, therapists’ pricing, and accessibility were discussed.

“Editing the human genome can develop our ability to cure disease, but the full impact will only be realized if we use it to the benefit of all people, rather than bringing greater health inequality across countries,” Tedros said. WHO Director General Adanom Hebres in a statement.

The committee presented several hypothetical scenarios involving the development of various gene therapies, including problematic somatic therapy for the treatment of sickle cell disease. A clinical trial of this ambitious scenario was conducted in West Africa, where the disease is evident. The exercise served as a warning, showing the emergence of sickle cell disease therapy in a place where it is most needed. but where most people might not be able to afford it.

Leonard Onon, a gene therapy expert at Harvard University who was not on the committee, told The New York Times: He “strongly supports” the proposals made by this “thoughtful group”.

These, of course, are just suggestions և countries are not legally bound by them. It’s not clear if anyone is listening. As Hank Grill, Director of the Stanford Center for Law and Biological Sciences, told STAT. “I’m not convinced that the WTO has the authority or the political և bureaucratic flexibility և power to exercise the scientific և moral leadership that calls for this report.”

Governments now have to decide how to move forward, but at least they can cite these guidelines, which included “contributions from hundreds of participants from around the world with different perspectives, including scientists, researchers, patient groups, faith leaders, and indigenous peoples.” : “, – says the WHO statement.

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