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Children born in the summer, who are the youngest in their class, are more likely than adults to have a depressive disorder.

The authors of London claim that the so-called “summer children” are also more likely to have low educational attainment when leaving school, for example, worse grades.

This is not only because they miss out on extra learning time, but also because there is a somewhat mature behavioral, cognitive, and social aspect that “puts the child at risk for much later outcomes.”

For example, being young in school can make children less receptive to their peers, which can lead to mental health problems in the future.

Summer children can be almost 12 months younger than their classmates, so they have less time to develop.

Based on the findings, the team calls for greater flexibility in school age so that summer children do not miss out on almost the entire calendar year of extra learning.

Babies born in the summer are more likely to be depressed և at risk of substance abuse later, the study found (stock image)

Babies born in the summer are more likely to be depressed և at risk of substance abuse later, the study found (stock image)


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (HDD) is a behavioral condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

It affects about five percent of children in the United States. In the UK, 3.6% of boys and 0.85% of girls suffer.

Symptoms usually appear at an early age and become more noticeable as the baby gets older. They may include:

  • Constant shaking
  • Poor concentration
  • Excessive movement or conversation
  • Act without thinking
  • Feeling little or no danger
  • Careless mistakes
  • Oblivion
  • Difficulty organizing tasks
  • Inability to listen to or follow instructions

The current school year in the United Kingdom is from 1 September to 31 August, so children born at the end of this period are in a precarious situation.

Being young in school, known as the “young relative age”, also increases the risk of being diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), experts warn.

The new study was conducted at King’s College London Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurology (IoPPN) in collaboration with the Karolinska Institutet and Orebro University.

“This is a significant difference in early childhood, in terms of maturity, behavior and cognitive abilities,” said study author Professor Onna Kunz.

“The characteristics of normal behavior for young children are in some cases comparable to those of much older adults. We can see from the data that being the youngest in a classic year has very real, long-term consequences.

“We show that just the month of a baby’s birth can put them at a disadvantage.

“This, of course, is a problem, because the future results of children should be completely independent of their relative age at the beginning of school.”

For their study, the researchers wanted to look at the combined effects of young և ADHD on several negative long-term outcomes.

The study looked at data from 300,000 Swedish individuals in the Swedish National Register, all of whom were born between 1990 and 1997.

As the deadline for Swedish schools to enter is January 1, those with a “relatively young age” are born close to the end of the calendar year when they are young in school.

According to the study, young people were born between November and December, and older people were born between January and February.

All individuals were followed from their 15th birthday to their birthday in 2013.

The researchers looked at whether they had a criminal record or took data from the National Patient Registry for substance abuse or depression.

Without ADHD individuals, young relative age was associated with a 14% risk of depression, as well as a 14% increase in substance abuse and a 17% reduction in lower educational attainment.

However, the risk of crime detected for this group did not increase.

Younger people with ADHD, on the other hand, had 23% of substance abuse and 12% of low educational attainment, but not depression or crime.

Being young in school (known as

Being young in school (known as “young relative age”) also increases the risk of being diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – a behavioral condition determined by inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity (stock image)


Children without ADHD

– The risk of substance abuse has increased by 14%

– 17% risk of high educational attainment

– Increased risk of depression by 14%

– There is no increased risk of crime

Children with ADHD

– The risk of substance abuse has increased by 23%

– 12% high risk of low educational attainment

– There is no risk of depression or increased crime

Thus, although the youngest children in the general class are more likely to have low educational attainment, substance abuse disorder, and later depression, young children with ADHD are at lower risk for depression.

Overall, the prevalence of ADHD was higher in young children (2.8% of the sample) compared with older children (1.7%).

Professor Kunzi said that the results did not necessarily show that the young relative age had negative consequences.

“What our data show is a longitudinal association. “Being young for the class further increases the risk of these outcomes,” he told MailOnline.

Academics point out that the negative effects of young relative age are much lower in countries like Denmark, probably because of the more flexible approach to school age.

Young children who may not be ready to start school are more likely to start school later, and as such are less likely to experience the negative effects of other countries.

This is a practice that researchers say could be replicated elsewhere, such as in the UK.

“Being the youngest child in the class can have complex developmental consequences, it can put them at a disadvantage in the earliest stages of their academic life,” said Professor Kunzi.

“If we want to overcome this, there must be greater understanding on the part of decision-makers, teachers and doctors, so that all children have equal opportunities to reach out in the future.”

The study was published today in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Drug addiction, also called substance abuse, results in an inability to control the use of legal or illegal drugs or drugs (stock image)

Drug addiction, also called substance abuse, results in an inability to control the use of legal or illegal drugs or drugs (stock image)

Earlier this year, Tammy Campbell, a researcher at the London School of Economics and Political Science, said elementary school children born in the summer were disproportionately labeled “Special Educational Needs or Disability” (SEND).

He found that children born in the summer, especially boys, were much more likely to receive the SEND label before the end of their elementary school career.

According to his research article, almost half of summer-born boys are classified as senders to primary schools.

“The problem, as I see it, is not that they had less time to study,” he told MailOnline at the time.

“Moreover, they are just younger, less developed, of course, one should not expect them to be so educated, because they are up to 12 months younger.

“For very young children, ‘normal’ expectations need to be flexible, emphasizing individual progress and growth, not static thresholds.”

Special educational needs երեխան children with disabilities (END ARKEL)

SEND means special educational needs or disability.

Children who say they have SEND can get SEND support at school.

Children with SEND can register at two levels.

LowerDecide who’s END ARCOM is accepted by the school and the funding is funded by the school. External agencies may in some cases be involved in providing assessments, but not necessarily. This level of support is not defined / guaranteed by law.

Higher. Education և Health Care Program (EHCP) Level. EHCP award decisions are made by the local government (LA). The provision is then օրենք legally guaranteed (theoretically) և funded by LA. This is for children whose needs cannot be met by the existing basic school funding.

Dr. Campbell found that the general patterns were similar to those of the “higher” local government-funded statutory SEND.

For example, in 2018, 1.7% of girls born in the fall in the age of 6 in elementary school were given a statutory contract at some point in elementary school, while 1.9% of summer girls and 4.5% of boys born in the fall. 5.2% of boys born in summer.


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